# Solar Electricity | Table O Contents

The components of Solar Electricity are complex. How Solar Electricity is measured is complex, too …

- Solar Electricity | Table O Contents
- The Electric Watt
- Photon Generators
- Electric kilo Watt
- Electric kilo Watt hour
- On Grid: The Utility Company
- Solar Panels
- Territorial Solar Rating
- BC Northern Lights Bloombox
- Summation
- Analysis
- Conversion To Kilowatts
- Do The Math
- Break It Down
- Conclusion
- Weight of Solar Panels
- Conclusion #2
- Cost of Solar Panels
- Solve The Problem
- Last Subtitle
- Support

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## The Electric Watt

Hint. Place the intro paragraph ie.) the ‘hypothesis’ here …

More to come …

**Issue**. What is an Electric **Watt**?

**Rule**. (1) **Watt** (W) = 1 joule per second;

A **Watt** (W), therefore, is simply a measure of the rate of electron **Power Flow** over an electric line.

**Analysis**. To illustrate, a quantity of two (2) **Watts** would equal a **Power Flow** of two (2) joules per second traveling into the home over a power line originating from an array of Solar panels.

## Photon Generators

Whereas, a 400 **Watt** (W) High-Intensity-Discharge (HID) lamp requires a **Power Flow** of 400 joules per second, or 400 **Watts** of power to operate efficiently.

And, a 125 **Watt** (W) Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) requires 125 joules per second of **Power Flow**, or 125 **Watts** of power to operate efficiently.

And, the above photon generators and their accompanying fans, timer, ballast, etc. are the main electrical components of the dual chamber **BC Northern Lights Bloom Box**.

How the are we to proceed?

Continue …

## Electric kilo Watt

**Issue**. What is an electric **kilo Watt (kW)**?

A **kilo Watt (kW)** of electricity holds the same relationship to electrons as a single kilo Gram bar of silver holds to grams of weight.

For example, one-thousand (1000) **Watts** of power, or **kilo Watt (kW)** equals 1000 joules per second in electron **Power Flow** …

Just as one-thousand (1000) grams of silver equals (1) kilo Gram.

## Electric kilo Watt hour

**Issue**. What is an electric **kilo Watt hour**?

**Rule**. One (1) electric **kilo Watt hour** (kWh) = 1,000 **Watts** of electron **Power Flow** over the timeframe of one-hour at the **Power Flow** rate of 1000 joules per second.

## On Grid: The Utility Company

**Issue**. What does the **Utility Company** charge for (1) **kilo Watt hour (kWh)** of consumer electric consumption?

**Rule**. The **Utility Companies** in Phoenix, Arizona USA …

Arizona Power Supply (APS) and Salt River Project (SRP) are both regulated public utilities.

Therefore, both generally charge a flat rate of $0.12 per **(kWh)** for residential customers in the State of Arizona.

## Solar Panels

**Rule**. Solar Panels are rated by the number of estimated **Watt**(s) (W) of **Direct Current (DC)** …

Or, direct electron **Power Flow** each panel can produce from the sun at peak daytime.

For example, a Solar Panel that is rated at 250 **Watt**(s) (W) of **Power Flow** is able to induce a **Direct Current (DC)** of …

250 joules per second from the sun at peak daytime.

Each Solar Panel, however, must be fitted with a Micro-inverter(MI) to take that **Direct Current (DC)** electron **Power Flow** …

And, convert it to the household type of current the dual chamber **BC Northern Lights Bloom Box** works best at.

Namely, the same type of current that powers your electric toaster … **Alternating Current (AC)**.

In the process of conversion, however, the electron **Power Flow** diminishes somewhat due the amount of energy tapped by the **Micro-inverters (MI)**.

What follows below is a **Territorial Solar Rating** based on that reduced ( and, now converted ) **Alternating Current (AC)** electron **Power Flow**.

## Territorial Solar Rating

**Rule**. The Phoenix, Arizona metro region resides in the 2nd highest potential **Solar Input Region (SIP)** of the United States.

Las Vegas, Nevada ( located in the Mohave Desert northwest of Phoenix ) is **#1**.

**Analysis**. Take the regional rating of the average annual expected **Direct Current (DC)** output of a 1 kilo Watt (kW) rated Solar Installation …

( Expressed in kilo **Watt** hours (kWh) of electron **Power Flow** for the region ) …

( 2000 for Phoenix );

( 2100 for Las Vegas );

And, now multiply that regional rating by the **Inversion Factor (IF)** of 0.78 …

The result of the above calculation is ( 1560 for Phoenix ) of now usable **Alternating Current (AC)** expressed in kilo **Watt** hours (kWh),

So, the approximate amount of **Direct Current (DC)** electricity converted to usable **Alternating Current (AC)** in kilo **Watt** hours (kWh) …

That you can expect to generate in one (1) year’s time using a 1 kilo **Watt** (kW) rated Solar Installation is ( 1560 for Phoenix ).

## BC Northern Lights Bloombox

**Issue**. What is the power consumption of a dual chamber BC Northern Lights Bloombox [1] ?

### Power Consumption Table

Rated Power Draw (W) | Quantity (Count) | Electrical Component | Power Draw (W) | Hours On (hr) | Usage per day (Watt-hours) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

400 (W) | 1 | HID Flowering Bulb | 400 (W) | 12.00 (hr) | 4800 Watt-hours |

125 (W) | 1 | CFL Vegetation Bulb | 125 (W) | 18.00 (hr) | 2250 Watt-hours |

24 (W) | 1 | Exhaust Fan | 24 (W) | 24.00 (hr) | 576 Watt-hours |

24 (W) | 2 | Bulb Circulation Fan | 48 (W) | 12.00 (hr) | 576 Watt-hours |

24 (W) | 1 | CO2 Period Input Fan | 24 (W) | 12.00 (hr) | 288 Watt-hours |

18 (W) | 1 | Air Pump | 18 (W) | 24.00 (hr) | 432 Watt-hours |

04 (W) | 1 | Water Pump | 04 (W) | 12 min or 00.20 (hr) | 0.80 Watt-hours |

## Summation

**Issue**. What is the daily cost to run power the dual chamber **BC Northern Lights Bloom Box** …?

### Total Usage Per Day (Watt-hours)

8923 Watt-hours

### Total Usage Per Day (kWh)

8.923 kilo Watt hours (kWh)

### Cost Per kilo Watt hour

12 cents

### Daily Cost ( 8.923 x 12 cents )

$1.07

## Analysis

If you run your dual chamber **BC Northern Light Bloom Box** continuously on schedule every day of the year …

Twelve (12) hours of **Alternating Current (AC)** electron flow for the **Flowering Chamber** accompanied by a simultaneous …

(18) hours of **Alternating Current (AC)** electron flow for the **Vegetation Chamber** …

Plus, all of the other incidental fans, pumps, digital timers, internal ambient air sensors, and digital internal atmospheric controls …

**Rule**. The dual chamber **BC Northern Lights Bloom Box** consumes approx. ( 8923 ) **Watt** hours of electron **Power Flow** every (24) hours.

Therefore, your “Grow” will consume approx. ( 3,256,895 ) **Watt-hours** when operating the dual chamber **BC Northern Lights Bloom Box** “full blast” … Over the course of the entire year.

Or,

365 days x 8.923 kilo **Watt** hours (kWh) of **Alternating Current (AC)** electron **Power Flow** annually.

## Conversion To Kilowatts

Converting the above result to (kW) …

In order to successfully establish a “Carbon Free Footprint” or “Zero Carbon Footprint” (ZCF) to power your **Dual Chamber BC Northern Lights Bloom Machine Grow Box** “full blast” …

Over the course of the entire year …

Requires a ( 3257 / 1560 ) kilo **Watt** (kW) rated system of Solar panels.

This corresponds to a ( 2.10 - 3.00 ) kilo **Watt** (kW) rated system ( array ) of Solar panels.

## Do The Math

350

Watt(W) rated Solar panels ( 17% Efficiency Rating )

6.29 Exposure Factor x 2.10 kW System = 13.209 (kWh) per day;

350w Solar Panel ( 0.35 kWh ) x 6.29 Exposure Factor = 2.2015 kWh per day

13.209 / 2.2015 = Six (6) 350w Solar Panels

## Break It Down

So, to break this down into simple math that you can do:

AC rating = (kWh) per day / Exposure Factor

AC rating = 8.923 / 6.29 = 1.42 (kW)

DC rating = AC rating / Inversion Factor (.78)

DC rating = 1.42 (kW) / .78 = 1.82 (kW)

Number of panels = DC rating (kW) x 1000 / Panel Rating (w)

Number of panels = 1.82 (kW) x 1000 / 350w

Number of panels = 1820w / 350w

Number of panels = 5.20, or a 3 x 2 Solar panel System ( array )

So, for example … a 2.10 (kW) System of Solar panels ( array ) = 2100 Watts …

And, a 350 watt panel = .350 (kW)

## Conclusion

Therefore, 2.10 (kW) x 1000 / 350 watt Solar panel =

2100 / 350 = 6 Solar Panels are required to generate ( Complete with individual accompanying Micro-Inverters (MI) … )

**Given**. The Sunmodule 350w XL Mono Solar Panel manufactured by Solar World carries an above benchmark 17.54% Efficiency Rating …

at a price well below $1 per rated production Watt.

Check: (6) Solar Panels x 350w = 2100 Watts = 2.1 (kW) rated system of Solar panels ( array )

## Weight of Solar Panels

**Issue**. How many pounds will six (6) 350 **Watt** (W) rated Solar panels ( 17% Efficiency Rating ) weigh?

**Given**. Six (6) Solar panels Are needed to to establish a system ( array ) output equal to a ( 2.10 - 3.00 ) kilo **Watt** (kW) rated system?

**Analysis**. Each Sunmodule 350w XL Mono Solar Panel weighs in at 47.6 pounds.

## Conclusion #2

Therefore, a 2 x 3 six (6) Solar panel array will weigh in at approx. 285 pounds.

## Cost of Solar Panels

**Issue**. What is the cost per Array?

**Rules**. Each Sunmodule 350w XL Mono Solar Panel retails for approx. $275 USD ( less than $1 per rated production **Watt** )

**Analysis**. To configure the 4 x 8 array of Solar Panels shown in the example photo requires (32) panels at a cost of $275 each, or $8,800 USD.

Plus, the cost of the Micro-Inverters (MI), the Dual Axis Tracking mechanism, the mount, and the pedestal.

## Solve The Problem

To build the required 2.10 - 3.00 kW rated Solar panel system ( array ) given the annual expected draw of ( 3,256,895 ) **Watt-hours** …

Requires the purchase of ( 2.10 x 2000 ) or, the size of the required system multiplied by the expected **Direct Current (DC)** expressed in …

kilo Watts (kW) ) / divided by the rating in **Watts** (W) of the solar panel, or 350.

4200 / 350 = 12 Solar panels rated at 350w with a 17% efficiency rating are required …

To configure the 3 x 4 array of Solar Panels shown in this (12) panel example at a cost of $275 each, or $3,300 USD.

Each 350w Solar panel is rated to produce a 350 kilo Watt (kW) stream of **Direct Current (DC)** **Power Flow** at the high point of the day.

Similarly, throughout the entire year a 1 (kW) rated System of Solar panels ( Array ) is expected to produce …

2000 (kW) of **Direct Current (DC)** **Power Flow** annually.

## Last Subtitle

More to come …

**Note**. The above synopsis was derived from an article written by BC Northern Lights [1].

- The Bloombox by BC Northern Lights. Published by © 2017 Bcnorthernlights.com.

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